Assembly line is a manufacturing process in which parts are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from the workstation to the workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced.
Assembly lines are common methods of assembling complex items such as automobiles and other transportation equipment, household appliances and electronic goods.
The assembly line is designed for the sequential organization of workers, tools or machines and parts. Worker activities are reduced as much as possible. All parts or components are handled by conveyor belts or motor vehicles (such as forklifts) or gravity, no manual trucks. Heavy lifting is done by machines such as overhead cranes or forklifts. Unless a job rotation strategy is applied, each worker usually performs only one simple operation.
Applications and Types of Assembly Lines
Since the late 19th century, assembly lines have been used in many different industries and are still in use today.
Assembly lines mainly used in industries such as automobiles, transportation, sporting goods, electronics, food and beverages, clothing and consumer commodity industries.In a word, Assembly Line is appropriate for all mass industries.
Here are three types of assembly lines
- Single piece production, each piece is completed before starting the next one.
- Mass production, a group of projects are produced together.
- Process production, that is, the same standardized products are produced on the assembly line.
Basic Advantages of Assembly Lines
- Increase product output: Automation can increase the productivity of parts. This in turn generates greater profitability.
- Ensure production quality: Robotic assembly and inspection can maximize production and error detection, and use camera-equipped robots for quality assessment and verification. This helps reduce variability, bottlenecks and provide consistent output.
- Improve work efficiency: Automation enables you to track and trace each unit produced through the manufacturing process. If any problems arise, you will be able to check every action that has been taken to locate the source of the problem and resolve it. Therefore, it saves time and labour force.
- Standardized production: The process is executed reliably through automation, freeing the operator from hours of tedious and challenging manual tasks. Automation is precise and repeatable. It ensures that each product is manufactured with the same specifications and processes.
Features of Modern Assembly Lines System
On modern assembly lines, new sensors and industrial IoT devices collect data from people and machines in real time.
Thanks to advanced robotics, collaborative automation and more complex software, the working relationship between humans and machines on the assembly line is closer than ever.
Some assembly lines are not as linear as their predecessors. Instead, work will be dynamically routed between different rows and cells as needed.
Due to high requirements for customization and more advanced error prevention technology, modern assembly lines can produce hundreds of variants of a single product.